Inner Voice, Target Tracking, and Behavioral Influence Technologies
John J. McMurtrey, M. S.,a Copyright 2003, 6 Apr. 2005b
Co-authorship is negotiable towards professional publication in an NLM indexed journal, Email- Johnmcmurt@aol.com
Donations toward future research are gratefully appreciated at http://www.slavery.org.uk/FutureResearch.htm
Inner voice transmission development by ultrasound and microwave technique is reviewed as well as target tracking literature. References recognizing behavioral influence technologies are surveyed along with reported instances of the use of microwave and ultrasound energy forms on people. Many aspects of the considered literature directly contradict professional presumptions, particularly within the psychological and psychiatric communities.
People discerning remote manipulation corresponding to technology capable of such influence have formed protest organizations across the world. 1 2 3 4 Educated society is uninformed regarding authentic documentation of the development and existence of these technologies, and is without appreciation of the hazard. Complaint of ‘hearing voices’ and perception of other remote manipulation must receive appropriate scientific and legal investigation with protection. Professional awareness is virtually absent with eminent texts and opinion being presumptive, without appraisal of the evidence.
Herein is substantiated:
The development of remote wireless ultrasound and microwave internal voice transmission.
Human tracking technologies.
References recognizing behavioral influence capabilities and the use of such technologies against humans.
ULTRASOUND VOICE TRANSMISSION
Because of conducting medium non-linearity, sound can be scattered by sounds of different frequencies, which produces entirely new tones, and this was originally observed in air as the Tartini tones during the eighteenth century. 5 The same phenomenon occurs for ultrasound sonar systems called parametric arrays in a manner that is highly directional. Mathematical basis for such sonar effects were developed, which predicted the generation of sound waves that are of audible low frequencies. 6 7 8 A subsequent more general and complete analysis predicted not only simple tones, but an ‘envelope’ of modulated low frequency sound, which could encompass voice within the hearing range. 9 Despite rumors of failed classified air experiments, 10 abstract reports of air generated acoustic tones by parametric array ultrasound beams began appearing, 11 12 13 and then had more complete publication, 14 though unrecognized was an earlier, less extensive report. 15 This ability to produce sound is utilized to construct loudspeakers for directionally projecting audio sound, 16 which have further characterization 17 with sound modulation improvement, 18 and mathematical prediction compared to experimental results. 19 20 Basic methods for such speakers are described in the Audio Engineering Handbook. 21 The connotation of ‘loudspeaker’ is somewhat misleading as a term for these speakers, since virtual point sources of sound are generated within the ultrasound beams 22 without scattering outside the beam intersection. 15 Recently parametric array emitter 23 and directivity 24 improvement, as well as less cumbersome mathematical descriptions for circular 25 or rectangular sources 26 are reported. These sound projection techniques are internally perceived by a recipient without directional orientation as described from demonstrations, and patents for non-lethal weapon applications.
Lowrey patent # 6052336 “Apparatus and method of broadcasting audible sound using ultrasonic sound as a carrier” clearly focuses on non-lethal weapon application against crowds or as directed at an individual. 27 Communication is understood as an inner voice with loss of the directional quality of sound perception. “Since most cultures attribute inner voices either as a sign of madness, or as messages from spirits or demons, both of which . . . evoke powerful emotional reactions”, quotes the effect on people. Replaying speech, with a delay impedes talking and causes stuttering. Normal brain wave patterns can be changed (or entrained), which “may cause temporary incapacitation, intense feelings of discomfort.” Entrainment technique is detailed by Monroe Patent # 5356368 “Method of and apparatus for inducing desired states of consciousness”, as accomplished by an auditory replication of brainwave patterns to entrain the EEG. 28 Interstate Industries licensed this patent.
The Norris patent # 5889870 “Acoustic heterodyne device and method” produces sound particularly within cavities such as the ear canal. 29 An individual readily understands communication across a noisy crowed room without nearby discernment. Sound can also be produced from mid-air or as reflecting from surfaces.
American Technology Corporation (ATC) licensed this latter patent, and commercially sells their HyperSonic Sound® system, which has a technical treatment available 10 and been presented at a professional meeting. 30 This company also has an acoustic non-lethal weapons system 31 called the Long Range Acoustic Device (LRADTM). The LRAD is being integrated into the Navy’s radar situational awareness surveillance systems, accounts for 60% of military sales, 32 and has a reported 80 % efficacy in deterring wayward Persian Gulf vessels. 33 Besides the Navy the device is also deployed to the Army, Coast Guard, and Marine Corps 34 as well as ground troops in Iraq 35 36 37 and Afghanistan. 38 39 The Miami police used the LRAD for the free trade conference, 40 while the New York Police obtained it for the Republican Convention. 33 41 The inner nature of sound perception is described from demonstrations for the Audio Engineering Society, 42 an engineering news article, 43 and Popular Science. 44 Some description of more obnoxious sound effects is available. 45 A similar ultrasound method capable of limiting sound to one person, Audio Spotlight® has peer reviewed publication,46 and is marketed. The Audio Spotlight has had exhibition at Boston’s Museum of Science, 47 the General Motors display at Disney’s Epcot Center, 48 the Smithsonian National Air & Space Museum, and other public venues. 49 The American Technology Corporation and Audio Spotlight devices feature in science news and technology articles. 50 51 52 53 A non-lethal weapons program director confirms the lack of nearby discernment on ultrasound voice transmission. 54 Other acoustic influence methods may utilize ultrasound. 55 c
There are early references to “radiofrequency hallucination” 56 and of reaction to radio wave energy 57 58 by Italian authors that may have observed radio frequency hearing phenomena, but the observations were poorly characterized, at least in available English publications. However sound perception was known through radar technicians in World War II 59 60 and the late 1940’s, 61 who had microwave hearing effect anecdotes. Though most literature on the hearing effect refers to microwave hearing, the phenomenon extends below microwave frequencies, and radio frequency hearing is also an appropriate term. 60 Allan H. Frey was the first to substantially characterize the microwave hearing effect in a series of articles beginning in 1961. 62 63 Subjects can hear appropriately pulsed microwaves at least up to thousands of feet from the transmitter. 64 Transmitter parameters above those producing the effect result in a severe buffeting of the head, while parameters below the effect induce a pins and needles sensation. Peak power is the major determinant of loudness, though there is some dependence on pulse width. 63 Pulse modulation appears to influence pitch and timbre. Microwave hearing is described as perceived within or near the head. 59 The hearing effect can be produced from radio frequency components of magnetic resonance scanners. 65
Direct microwave hearing experience by many microwave workers, and the phenomenon’s well replicated animal definition makes this the most accepted of low power microwave effects. 61 Review of human and animal microwave hearing confirmation by independent investigators establishes validity. 58 59 60 66 67 68 69 Designs for scaring birds away from aircraft or other hazards by microwave hearing 70 and induction of vertigo 71 exist. 72
While working for the Advanced Research Projects Agency at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Sharp and Grove discovered “receiverless” and “wireless” voice transmission. 73 Their method was simple: the negative deflections of voiceprints from recorded spoken numbers were caused to trigger microwave pulses. Upon illumination by such verbally modulated energy, the words were understood remotely. The discovery’s applications are “obviously not limited to therapeutic medicine” according to James C. Lin in Microwave Auditory Effects and Applications. 74
A Defense Intelligence Agency Communist literature review affirms microwave sound and indicates voice transmission. The report states: “Sounds and possibly even words which appear to be originating intracranially (within the head) can be induced by signal modulation at very low average power densities.” 75 Among weapon implications are “great potential for development into a system for disorientating or disrupting the behavior patterns of military or diplomatic personnel.” An Army Mobility Equipment Research and Development Command report affirms microwave speech transmission with applications of “camouflage, decoy, and deception operations.” 76 “One decoy and deception concept presently being considered is to remotely create noise in the heads of personnel by exposing them to low power, pulsed microwaves . . . By proper choice of pulse characteristics, intelligible speech may be created” quotes the report.
The Brunkan Patent # 4877027 “Hearing system” is a device for verbal microwave hearing. 77 The invention converts speech with remote introduction into the head by parabolic antenna. The microwave spectrum granted by the patent is from 100 to 10,000 MHz (0.1-10 GHz) with pulse width from 10 nanoseconds to 1 microsecond, and bursts of such pulses lasting from 500 nanoseconds to 100 microseconds. Preferred operation is at 1000 MHz, which is the frequency of optimal tissue penetration. 78 Bursts of narrowly grouped, evenly spaced pulses determine sound intensity by their amount per unit time. A similar German patent for remote antenna microwave voice transmission is also based on microwave bursts. 79 A microwave voice transmission patent with a non-remote transducer that is based on microwave bursts is “designed in such a way that the burst frequencies are at least virtually equal to the sound frequencies of the sounds picked up by the microphone.” 80
Microwave hearing literature confirms an ability to reproduce sound characteristics, and aspects of these patents. Though loudness is modulated by pulse power, 63 81 closely spaced pulses also increase sound intensity, 82 83 or lower the perception threshold. 65 Pulse width affects tonal quality with longer pulses producing lower frequency sound. 59 Microwave pulse width differentially influences cat cochlear nucleus auditory units that are responsive to different tones 84 over sound frequencies from 931 Hz to 25.5 kHz. 85 The responses dependent on the separation of twin pulses 85 have at least some analogy to the parameters of human pitch discrimination. 86 Lin extends the range of microwave hearing to frequencies into the ‘tens of gigahertz.’ 59
There are numerous patents for microwave voice transmission with non-remote transducers 87 with one based on multiple microwave frequencies. 88 The first inventor of non-remote radio frequency voice transmission had a patent held up for five years by a Defense Intelligence Agency secrecy order, 89 but the device is now for sale over the internet as the Neurophone. 90 91 Two separate devices with non-remote transducers show efficacy in peer reviewed publication either by independent analysis of operation, 92 93 94 or the developers demonstrating improved speech discrimination. 95 96 Although this latter report’s title features electrotherapy, radio frequency hearing had just previously been considered as electrophonic hearing, 97 with the report stating a radio frequency method, while referring equipment description to an Air Force Systems Command commissioned study. 98 This 1964 Air Force study is the first report of radio frequency voice transmission with improved word discrimination in 9 hearing impaired patients.
Descriptions in some of the patents attribute microwave hearing to direct neural influence. However in review, the most accepted mechanism is by thermoelastic expansion, which results in sound waves 67 that most likely induces bone conducted hearing. The cochlea does appear to be involved, but not the middle ear. 69
“Communicating Via the Microwave Auditory Effect” is the title of a small business contract for the Department of Defense. Communication initial results are: “The feasibility of the concept has been established” using both low and high power systems. 99 A Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request as to the project’s final outcome met with denial on the part of the Air Force, on the grounds that disclosure “could reasonably be expected to cause damage to national security.” 100 Though the Air Force denied this FOIA disclosure, such a contract’s purpose is elaborated by the Air Force’s “New World Vistas” report: “It would also appear possible to create high fidelity speech in the human body, raising the possibility of covert suggestion and psychological direction . . . . If a pulse stream is used, it should be possible to create an internal acoustic field in the 5-15 kilohertz range, which is audible. Thus it may be possible to ‘talk’ to selected adversaries in a fashion that would be most disturbing to them.” 101 102 Means to actualize such communication ‘possibility’ is evident in patents 103 104 assigned to the Air Force without royalty payment. These patents describe demodulation of speech at the head of a recipient without a proximate emitter, and no beneficial use presumed. The process involves amplitude modulation where the carrier wave’s influence is fully suppressed, high frequency speech components are filtered, and further distortion preventing processing. The inventors are Air Force employees who have received awards from the Directed Energy Directorate, apparently both for assistance in developing the millimeter wave area denial system later discussed. 105 106 Robert O. Becker, whose eminence was enough to have been twice nominated for the Nobel Prize in biological electromagnetic fields research, is explicit regarding clandestine use of radio frequency voice transmission: “Such a device has obvious applications in covert operations designed to drive a target crazy with “voices” or deliver undetectable instructions to a programmed assassin.” 107
For years the Center for Army Lessons Learned acknowledged microwave hearing voice transmission as a non-lethal weapon in a 'voice to skull devices' weapons thesaurus entry, but this entry was excluded subsequent to request for congressional investigation of such development, and any implementation or misuse thereof. 108 d An article from a magazine that publishes notably non-mainstream views details microwave inner voice device demonstration by Dr. Dave Morgan at a 1993 classified Johns Hopkins sponsored non-lethal weapon conference, manufacture by Lockheed-Sanders, and implies use by the CIA, who call the process ‘voice synthesis’ or ‘synthetic telepathy.’ 109
When electromagnetic signatures of spoken words are applied to the head at very low field levels (1 microTorr), word choice is significantly affected along the same emotional dimensions as the applied word. 110 Though inspired by microwave hearing, this report is not of direct auditory perception. The author suggests that such an influence, even though weak, could shift the direction of group decisions in large populations, and has previously elaborated on the possibility of less specific electromagnetic influence on populations. 111
The maintenance of isolated hearing effects on people requires obstacle penetration and target tracking. Internal voice capable energy forms penetrate obstruction and can be localized. Sound transmission through enclosures is a common experience. Human tracking ability is not nearly as apparent for ultrasound as for microwave radar, but ultrasound is being developed to discern movement through walls.112 113 114 Though ultrasound is unnoticed even at high intensity and can pass through walls, a significant portion of the encoded sound from ultrasound speakers reflects audibly upon striking hard flat surfaces.
Common technology utilizes the radio frequency hearing spectrum, which encompasses cell phone, 115 116 TV, and radar frequencies. 117 A variety of antennae localize the structurally penetrating radiation with collimation or focusing. 118 119 The Luneburg lens emits parallel rays and has over 50 years utilization.120 Masers are another method of collimation. 121
Military radar systems listing human tracking capability include: Advanced Radar Surveillance System (ARSS-1) by Telephonics; 122 Beagle Portable Ground Surveillance Radar by Pro Patria; 123 AN/PPS-5D Man-Portable Battlefield Surveillance Radar by Syracuse Research Corp.; 124 Squire LPI Ground Surveillance Radar by MSSC Corp.; 125 and Manportable Surveillance and Target Acquisition Radar (MSTAR) by Systems & Electronics, Inc., 126 which have ranges from 7-12 km for personnel tracking. Some of these internet examinable references extend their capability from that listed in the 2000-2001 Jane’s Radar and Electronic Warfare Systems, which lists 13 target acquisition or tracking systems specifying such capability on personnel, purchased by militaries of some 27 countries. 127 Besides Russian manufacture there are also East European producers of such systems. 127 128
The most widely deployed system is the Rasit ground surveillance radar by Thomson CSF AIRSYS, which lists 20 km as 90% probability of detection for humans.127 Earlier systems have been in use since the Vietnam War. 129 Basic operation of these systems involves a track initiation processor acquiring a target, while a data association filter maintains a tracking lock on the target. 130 The above designs feature infantry portability or mobile forward deployment, and cannot be regarded as the limit of capability, since larger radars have a range of 100 miles, 131 though lacking human tracking specification.
A quarter of a century ago, Jane’s Weapon Systems listed some 32 weapons fire control designs whereby aiming was entirely determined by radar tracking data with at least 10 systems primarily designed for control of one weapon system. 132 Eight weapons guidance systems utilized microwave target illumination by a dedicated surface beam (called semi-active homing). 132 Sensors for more recent active guidance systems also illuminate targets for both laser 133 microwave radar 134 135 units that are compact enough to be onboard the missile, and so inexpensive as to be disposable with the weapon. Target illumination tracking systems have nanosecond to microsecond response times. Such responses do not require a wide scan area to lock illumination upon a person at achievable speeds. At 90 miles per hour an auto travels less than 1/100 of an inch in a microsecond.
Rowan Patent # 4893815 “Interactive transector device commercial and military grade” describes the acquisition, locking onto, and tracking of human targets. 136 Stated therein: “Potentially dangerous individuals can be efficiently subdued, apprehended and appropriately detained.” The capability of “isolating suspected terrorists from their hostages . . . or individuals within a group without affecting other members of the group” is stated. Laser, radar, infrared, and acoustic sensor fusion is utilized to identify, seek, and locate targets. Locking illumination upon the target until weapons engagement accomplishes tracking. Among available non-lethal weapons is an incapacitating electromagnetic painful pulse. Tracking data automatically aims weapons, and the system even provides remote physiological stress assessment during attack.
Microwave methods of assessing life by detecting breathing and heartbeat rates had full description in 1967, 137 and are reviewed respecting medical and possible rescue use. 138 The technique can differentiate hypovolemic from normal rabbits. 139 The US Military has an interest in a non-contact vital signs monitor. 140 The capacity is evaluated for obtaining covert polygraph information for lie detection. 141 142 143
Hablov Patent # 5448501 “Electronic life detection system” describes radar that detects vital organ motion, and distinguishes individuals through obstruction. 144 Therein is stated: “the modulated component of the reflected microwave signal . . . subjected to frequency analysis . . . forms a type of “electronic fingerprint“ of the living being with characteristic features, which . . . permits a distinction between different living beings.” Though this patent applies to trapped victim rescue, another Hablov et. al. Patent # 5530429 “Electronic surveillance system” detects interlopers with security emphasis. 145 Individual variance of human radar signatures is otherwise known 146 than these patents, and gait 147 148 or heartbeat 149 150 have consideration as biometric identifiers.
Battlefield human tracking specifications are not expected to consider obstruction. Some indication of radar capability through obstruction can be gleaned from the adaptation of military technology to through-wall surveillance, 151 which has been spurred by declassifications of the Clinton administration, and Homeland Security initiatives. Surveys or overviews of through-the-wall radar open literature are available.152 153 154 Most materials negligibly attenuate radar at the lower microwave frequencies. High frequencies in the millimeter wavelengths (95 GHz =3 mm) can provide detailed imaging of humans, but are not suitable for brick and concrete. 152 Though without detail, some human image can be obtained at frequencies as low as 10 GHz, which also has good building material penetration. 152 Image resolution is enhanced by increased antenna aperture, 155 which can be synthetic without dependence on a single antenna’s size. 156 Humans are actually emissive of millimeter wavelengths,157 and otherwise have good reflectance, 154 with a radar cross section of one square meter, 158 which approximates the two dimensional profile. Human emmissivity at millimeter wavelengths even allows some measure of passive detection through walls, 152 though weapons detection through clothing is most developed. 159 160
Many through-the-wall radars simply detect gross motion, a frequent state of awake humans. Raytheon’s Enhanced Motion and Ranging System is battery operated, briefcase sized, lists maximum range as 100 feet, provides two dimensional tracking, and can report range to motion of up to 16 targets. 161 162 163 Defense Research and Development Canada of their Defense Department commissioned a consulting company to examine the feasibility of constructing an Ultra Wide-Band (UWB) through-the-wall radar from off the shelf components. 164 Subsequent demonstrations show that such systems can locate a moving target within a building from 60 meters away with methods being refined to provide building layout, and denote non-moving targets. 165 UWB radars decrease interference with commercial signals, 166 and makes radar utilization more difficult to detect. A portable, battery operated radar can detect an individual through 3 walls. 167 Another UWB radar detects personnel through several intervening walls, and an extended range system can track human targets in excess of 1000 feet, with tracking data used to point a camera in the target direction. 168
Some through-the-wall surveillance (TWS) radars have considerable commercial development. Fullerton et al. Patent # 6400307 “System and method for intrusion detection using a time domain radar array” 169 is licensed to Time Domain, 170 which has Federal Communications Commission approval for sale of 2,500 of it’s RadarVision units in the US. 171 172 RadarVision is marketed internationally, 173 has police or fire fighter target markets, 174 and the company is developing a SoldierVision unit for the US Army. 175 176 Georgia Tech is developing their Radar Flashlight for security and rescue applications. 177 178 Both of these TWS systems operate by detecting vital organ motion, being battery operated, highly compact (10 pounds or less) models for the widest commercial potential, thus limiting range. RadarVision detects within 30 feet, while Radar Flashlight has a 10 foot range.
Other commercial TWS system developers are Patriot Scientific Corporation, 179 AKELA, Inc., 180 SRI International, 181 and Hughes Missile Systems Co. 131 Radar detection software for personal computer display is sold. 182 A Russian report describes an ability to record the frequency spectrum of speech besides heartbeat and respiration.183 Since through-wall surveillance systems evident in the open literature are subject to commercial regulatory, pricing, portability, imaging, and multiple subject observation constraints, they cannot be regarded as the limit of capability especially regarding radars for less economically constrained security markets or not featuring portable design.
RECOGNITION OF BEHAVIORAL INFLUENCE TECHNOLOGIES
Though not necessarily only involving voice transmission, references to behavioral influence weapons by government bodies and international organizations are numerous. Negotiation submissions to the United Nations Committee on Disarmament affirm the reality of microwave weapon nervous system effects. 184 European Parliament passage of resolutions calling for conventions regulating non-lethal weapons and the banning of “weapons which might enable any form of manipulation of human beings” 185 includes neuro-influence capability. 186 A resolution relates to the US High Frequency Active Auroral Research Project (HAARP), which can have environmental consequences, and although utilizing high frequency, ionospheric extra low frequency (ELF) emanation results. Since ELF is within brain wave frequencies the project has capacity to influence whole populations. 111 187 President Carter’s National Security Advisor, Zbigniew Brzezinski, predicted development of such capacity. 188 A US draft law prohibiting land, sea, or space-based weapons using electromagnetic, psychotronic (behavioral influence), and sound technologies “directed at individual persons or targeted populations for the purpose of information war, mood management, or mind control” has not yet passed. 189 Use of electromagnetic devices against people or electronics in Michigan is a serious felony. 190 Russian electromagnetic standards are nearly 1000 times lower than the West, so their weapon law forbidding electromagnetic weapons exceeding Health Department parameters is strict. 191 A Russian draft law explicitly references behavioral influence non-lethal weapons, and development in several countries. 192 Resolutions by the International Union of Radio Science recognize criminal use of electromagnetic technology, particularly against infrastructure. 193
An Israeli general in charge of military research and development acknowledged investment in “mind control” technology by Israel. 194 CNN has also reported regular use of microwaves against Palestinians as sourced form a medical engineer, and that the US Defense Department has contingency plans to use electromagnetic weapons against terrorists. 195 The same reference quotes an ex-intelligence agent as stating “The US Government has an electronic device which could implant thoughts in people” in a different program interview. Electromagnetic behavioral manipulation effects have had report on various Discovery cable channel programs, and suspicion of such technology use on then President Nixon was expressed on Larry King Live, which reiterated congressional testimony. 196 A statement by General John Jumpers about making enemies hear and believe things that don’t exist would include inner voice technology. 197
The US Department of Defense has declassified a millimeter wavelength area denial weapon. 198 The prototype weapon is vehicle mounted, and considered a non-lethal weapon. 102 199 The device produces a beam that causes a burning sensation, that is stopped by switching off the transmitter, or escape from the beam. 200 Development of this device is in the advanced stages, and deployment to Iraq is reported expected in 2005. 201
Besides confirming ultrasound internal voice capability, 54 non-lethal weapons treatments note high powered microwave impulse disruption of brain waves with functional alteration 202 including unconsciousness, 203 204 205 which is confirmed in experimental animals. 206 Non-lethal weapon reviews also mention ‘mind control’ development and testing. 207 208 Terms utilized in the latter references indicate subliminal messaging, particularly a Russian developed technique called psycho-correction, 209 the utilization of which was considered against David Koresh of the Waco, Texas Branch Davidian incident. 210 211 212 An American system in the previous Army thesaurus reference called Silent Sounds 73 213 e also utilizes subliminal messaging, and was utilized in the 1991 Iraq War according to the company founder, 214 and British news reports. 215 A system based on the same technology is for sale on the Internet. 92 Silent Sounds also has sophisticated brainwave entrainment by “emotional clustering” capability. 214 216 Subliminal messaging is utilized in retail stores for theft prevention. 217 218 Although the Federal Communications Commission reports few complaints of subliminal messaging in broadcasts, 217 the technique was most recently utilized in a 2000 US presidential political advertisement, 219 and is reportedly rampant within Russian television. 220
The microwave irradiation of the American Embassy in Moscow received little publicity until the winter of 1976 instillation of protective screening, but irradiation was known since 1953. 221 The irradiation was directional from nearby buildings with pulsation detected. Complaint to the Soviets had no avail, but the signals disappeared in January 1979 “reportedly as a result of a fire in one or more of the buildings,” 222 though there was recurrence in 1988. 223 Psychiatric cases occurred during the exposure period, but no epidemiologic relationship was revealed with fully a quarter of the medical records unavailable, and comparison with other Soviet Bloc posts. 222 Although significant results matched the Soviet recognized neurotic syndrome, 224 these were dismissed as subjective symptoms. Professional publications further detail some of these flaws, 225 along with charges of government cover-up, particularly respecting cancer cases. 226 The CIA had Dr. Milton Zaret review Soviet medical microwave literature to determine the purpose of the irradiation. He concluded the Russians “believed the beam would modify the behavior of the personnel.” 227 In 1976 the post was declared unhealthful and pay raised 20%. 228
The most documented citizen microwave irradiation was of peace protesters at Greenham Common American Air Force Base in Berkshire England, who prompted investigation of unusual symptoms. 229 Radiation measurements exhibited microwaves with symptom experience up to a hundred times the background level, and rose sharply on protests nearer the base. 223 Symptoms became pronounced on cruise missile transport, a protest focus. 223 Recorded were wide ranging complaints: skin burns; ‘severe’ headaches; drowsiness; temporary paralysis; incoordinated speech; two late (5 mos.) spontaneous abortions; an apparent circulatory failure; and unlike usual menstrual synchronization, irregular or postmenopausal menstruation. The symptom complex fits well with electromagnetic exposure syndrome. 223 It is also reported that some of the women ‘heard voices.’ 230 The base closed finally in 1991.
Measurement of non-ionizing radiation fields in the vicinity of an Australian victim is described. 231 The intensity ranged from 7 mV in an adjacent room to 35 mV next to the head. Criminal microwave directed energy weapon use is reported in Germany 232 having similarity of circumstances, complaints, and symptoms in a number of cases, with microwave field measurement excluding the usual sources (cell phone towers, etc.) in at least one case. 233 Other anecdotal cases affirm microwave field measurement without strength publication. 196 234 235 A security company advertises investigations of electromagnetic harassment including microwave voice transmission with field measurement. 236 Victims have asserted an ability to record harassment effects. Though the evidence for recording microwave harassment effects is inconclusive and only slightly more than anecdotal, condenser microphones are responsive to the thermo-acoustic mechanism, and other microphone design types have elements that are similar to thermo-acoustic responsive situations. 237
Ultrasound behavioral influence technology use in Northern Ireland is cited. 204 The device could focus on one person and utilized ultrasound like the previous discussed patents, though voice transmission is unconfirmed. It was employed in Vietnam by the Americans, and is known as the squawk box. Psychological effects are summarized as ‘spooky.’ More detail by a defense journalist is quoted: “When the two frequencies mix in the human ear they become intolerable. Some people exposed to the device are said to feel giddy or nauseous and in extreme cases they faint. Most people are intensely annoyed by the device and have a compelling wish to be somewhere else.” 238 British police inventories list the specific device, though a spokesman denied use. 223
Sophisticated behavioral influence capability is confirmed by ex-intelligence officers. Julianne McKinney, Director of The National Security Alumni Electronic Surveillance Project has conducted a study of victim cases. This is a largely classified employee victim study with internal voice transmission avowal. 239
Ultrasound voice transmission technology is well confirmed by peer reviewed literature, deployed in military 35 36 37 38 or police situations, 33 40 41 publicly demonstrated in museum exhibits, 47 48 49 and for sale to the public. 240 241 Microwave internal voice transmission citations rest on a solid foundation of microwave hearing literature, with confirmation in peer reviewed literature as well as a government report for non-remote transducer systems, 95 97 99 and a further such device for sale. 92 There are four patents for remote radio frequency voice transmission, 78 80 two of which were developed by the US Defense Department 104 105 as well as additional references affirming successful development. 74 77 100 Though there is only some publication of microwave field strength around victims 223 231 or measurement anecdotes, 196 234 235 with such publication to remote radio frequency voice transmission use being in media of less respected reliability, such reports are supported by descriptions of non-lethal weapon applications 76 103 and references indicating weapons. 73 109 The existence of numerous systems capable of tracking humans, has long demonstrated the feasibility of constructing devices capable of producing internal voice continuously in isolated individuals. To deny such technological capability in the face of extensive complaint is willfully to ignore documented development of the relevant technologies and engineering competence for complete integration. It must be appreciated that engineering development is often proprietary and less published than open science, especially in areas with covert application. Even the most prejudiced skeptic, who would honestly consider the relevant literature, would have to concede that such capacity has had development. The fact is that such complaints have had no adequate investigation.
The logic in the prediction by Brzezinski f of the appearance of a more controlled and directed society dominated by a power elite willing to use the latest modern techniques for influencing behavior without hindrance by liberal democratic values is compelling. 188 Since those supposedly expert regard a victim’s perceptions as psychotic, all complaints are disregarded, much less capability to bear witness. Potential targets are multiple, and may include anyone worth neutralization: domestic adversaries; security risks, which may only comprise classified disclosures; witnesses of improprieties; those prone to committing advantageous felonies; and even those psychologically similar to target groups for development purposes. Internal voice technology is most applicable within the same language and culture. Security agencies have little legal accountability, particularly with utilization of unrecognized technology. Legality is readily circumvented by executive orders, (particularly declaration of a crisis or emergency situation), which can be sealed, and this prerogative is only accountable to co-equal branches of government.
Most complainants allege public sector involvement or sub-contracted private companies. 242 Remote behavioral influence research has long been funded by the US, 108 with evidence of inner voice transmission development 31 74 77 78 80 100 104 105 and weapons,34 35 36 37 54 73 109 though denying on national security grounds project results 101 and even foreign literature analyses. 243 Some 30 countries evidence active behavioral influence weapon research. 244
Leaders of victim movements for investigation and protest have written presentable treatments from the East European 234 235 245 and victim 196 perspectives, but while there has been some psychoanalytical acknowledgement, 246 no concise treatment is published in mainstream media. Current medical awareness ensures effective neutralization of the afflicted, though not all those affected are stigmatized. However phenomena of ‘hearing voices’, or perception of remote manipulation, when recounted to health professionals results in various prejudicial diagnoses, 247 248 totally without investigation. The longstanding disregard for people with such symptoms that give presumed rationale for civil rights abrogation must be justified by adequate investigation, which is not apparent in medical scholarship. Mandatory is determination of relevant fields around complainants. Professional opinions formed without excluding these technologies are negligent. Such diagnosis must be regarded as presumptive.
Longstanding complaints by numerous victims about remote voice transmission to the medical community 249 are too correspondent to the technologic development herein documented to further ignore. The fact that microwave bioeffects have extensive correlation with reported symptoms of major psychosis other than ’voices,’ 250 further substantiates the ambiguity of diagnostic supposition. All of society should be disturbed at the prospect of remote inner voice induction, since the unaware subject would perceive such voices as his own natural thought, without complaint provoking assault. Even complaints of ‘mind reading’ by some victims perceiving such intrusion has basis in that recent EEG analysis studies confirm and extend the feasibility of thought reading, which was reported initially by a 1975 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency study, and there are references to ‘remote EEG’ microwave methods. 251
Acknowledgements: Thanks are given to God for inspiration, and a benefactor of Christians Against Mental Slavery for financial support (website http://www.slavery.org.uk .) There is gratitude also to Dr. Paul Canner, and Dr. Allen Barker for their suggestions. Excellent compilation of research sources by Eleanor White is also acknowledged, though her site is no longer publically available.
All patents are freely printable from the U. S. Patent Office website or at esp@cenet.
Designated internet urls are not restricted as to database.
c Loos Patent # 6017302 “Subliminal acoustic manipulation of nervous system” can “cause relaxation, drowsiness, or sexual excitement, depending on the precise acoustic frequency near ½ Hz used. The effects of the 2.5 Hz resonance include slowing of certain cortical processes, sleepiness, and disorientation.”
d Vide infra for discussion of the analogously listed “Silent Sound” device in this reference.
e Also called S-quad, Silent Sounds, Inc. licensed Lowery Patent #5159703 “Silent subliminal presentation system”, also has advanced brain wave entrainment technology with several classified patents. (See http://www.megabrain.com/eeg.htm and http://www.megabrain.com/patent.htm accessed 8/4/04) Unessential is individual direction, but possible by ultrasound.
f National Security Advisor to President Carter.
1 Mind Justice (formerly Citizens Against Human Rights Abuse). Director; Cheryl Welsh, 915 Zaragoza Street, Davis, CA 95616, USA. Website accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.mindjustice.org/ Email is firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Christians Against Mental Slavery. Secretary; John Allman, 98 High Street, Knaresbourough, N. Yorks HG5 0HN, United Kingdom. Website accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.slavery.org.uk Email is email@example.com
3 Moscow Committee for the Ecology of Dwellings. Chairman; Emile Sergeevne Chirkovoi, Korpus 1006, Kvrtira 363, Moscow Zelenograd, Russia 103575. Website accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.moskomekologia.narod.ru Email is firstname.lastname@example.org
4 International Movement for the Ban of Manipulation of the Human Nervous System by Technologic Means. Founder; Mojmir Babacek, P. O. Box 52, 51101 Turnov, Czech Republic, Europe. Website accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Campus/2289/webpage.htm Email is email@example.com
5 Weiguo D and Qunli W. “Audio Sound Reproduction Based on Nonlinear Interaction of Acoustic Waves” J Audio Eng Soc 47(7/8): 602-6, 1999. Abstract 2/14/05 Compendex accessible.
6 Westervelt PJ. “Scattering of Sound by Sound” J Acoust Soc Am 29(2): 199-203, 1957. Abstract 2/14/05 Compendex accessible.
7 Westervelt PJ. “Scattering of Sound by Sound” J Acoust Soc Am 29(8): 934-5, 1957.
8 Westervelt PJ. “Parametric Acoustic Array” J Acoust Soc Am 35(4): 535-37, 1963.
9 Berktay HO. “Possible Exploitation of Non-linear Acoustics in Underwater Transmitting Applications” J Sound Vib 2(4): 435-61, 1965.
10 Croft JJ and Norris JO. “Theory, History, and the Advancement of Parametric Loudspeakers: A Technology Overview” American Technology Corporation, Part # 98-10006-1100 Rev. E, 2001-2003. Paper accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.atcsd.com/pdf/HSSWHTPAPERRevE.pdf
11 Shealy WP and Eller AJ. “Design and Preliminary Results of an Acoustic Parametric Source in Air” J Acoust Soc Am 54: 297A, 1973.
12 Bennett MB and Blackstock DT. “Experimental Verification of the Parametric Array in Air” J Acoustic Soc Am 54: 297A, 1973.
13 Widener MW and Muir TG. “Experiments in Parametric Arrays in Air” J Acoust Soc Am 55(2): 428-9A, 1974.
14 Bennett MB and Blackstock DT. “Parametric array in air” J Acoust Soc Am 57(3): 562-8, 1975.
15 Bellin JLS and Beyer RT. “Experimental Investigation of an End-Fire Array” J Acoust Soc Am 34(8): 1051-4, 1962. Abstract 2/14/05 Compendex accessible.
16 Yoneyama M, Fujimoto J-I, Kawamo Y, and Sasabe S. “The audio spotlight: An application of non-linear interaction of sound waves to a new type of loudspeaker design” J Acoust Soc Am 73(5): 1532-6, 1983. Abstract 2/14/05 Compendex accessible.
17 Aoki K, Kamakura T, and Kumamoto Y. “Parametric Loudspeakers—Characteristics of Acoustic Field and Suitable Modulation of Carrier Ultrasound” Electronics and Communications in Japan 74(Part 3, #9): 76-81, 1991.
18 Kamakura T, Aoki K, and Kumamoto Y. “Suitable Modulation of the Carrier Ultrasound for a Parametric Loudspeaker” Acustica 73: 215-17, 1991. Abstract 2/14/05 Compendex accessible.
19 Yang J, Sha K, Gan W-S, and Tian J. “Nonlinear Wave Propagation for a Parametric Loudspeaker” IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals E87-A(9): 2395-2400, 2004. Abstract Compendex accessed 12/15/04, and article available from first author at email - EJYang@ntu.edu.sg
20 Kamakura T, Tani M, and Kumamoto Y. “Parametric Sound Radiation from a Rectangular Aperture Source” Acustica 80: 332-38, 1994. Abstract 2/14/05 Compendex accessible.
21 Satoh K. “Sound Reproduction Devices and Systems: Parametric Speaker” In: Benson BK (ed.) Audio Engineering Handbook McGraw-Hill, New York, p 7.61-7.66, 1988.
22 Havelock DI and Brammer AJ. “Directional Loudspeakers Using Sound Beams” J Audio Engineering Society 48(10): 908-16, 2000. Abstract Compendex accessible 12/15/04.
23 Moon B-C, Kim M-J, Ha K-L, and Kim C-D. “Radiation Characteristics Improvement of Flexural Type Vibrator for Parametric Sound Source in Air” Japan Journal of Applied Physics 41: 3458-9, 2002. Full text Compendex accessed 1/5/05.
24 Tan KS, Gan WS, Yang J, and Er MH. “Constant Beamwidth Beamformer for Difference Frequency in Parametric Array” Proceedings of the ICASSP, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 5: 361-4, 2003. Full text Compendex accessed 1/5/05.
25 Kamakura T. “Two Model Equations for Describing Nonlinear Sound Beams” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 43(5B): 2808-12, 2004. Full text Compendex accessed 12/30/04.
26 Yang J, Sha K, Gan W-S, and Tian J. “A Fast Field Scheme for the Parametric Sound Radiation from Rectangular Aperture Source” Chinese Physics Letters 21(1): 110-13, 2004. Full text Compendex accessed 12/30/04.
27 Lowrey A. Patent # 6052336 “Apparatus and method of broadcasting audible sound using ultrasonic sound as a carrier” USPTO granted 4/18/00.
28 Monroe RA. Patent # 5356368 “Method of and apparatus for inducing desired states of conscisousness” USPTO granted 10/18/94.
29 Norris EG. Patent # 5889870 “Acoustic Heterodyne device and method” USPTO granted 3/20/99.
30 Norris EG. “The Creation of Audible Sound from Ultrasonic Energy – A Fundamental Paradigm Shift” J Acoust Soc Am 101: 3072, 1997.
31 American Technology Corporation. “American Technology Corporation Announces Acoustic Non-Lethal Weapon Technology for Military and Law Enforcement” press release of 30 Oct 2001.
32 American Technology Corporation. “American Technology Corporation Awarded Key Military Contract to Deliver Modified Long Range Acoustic Devices (LRADtm)” press release of 21 Oct 2003. Accessed on 3/8/05 at http://www.atcsd.com/PressReleases/10_21_03.html
33 Schollmeyer J. “Pumping up the volume” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 60(6): 8-9, November/December, 2004. General Science Full Text Wilson Web 2/14/05 accessible.
34 American Technology Corporation. “American Technology Corporation Reports Highlights of the Annual Meeting of Shareholders” press release of 28 May 2004. Accessed on 3/8/05 at http://www.atcsd.com/PressReleases/05_28_04.html
35 Staff. “American Technology Corporation Awarded $ 485,000 Contract to Deliver Long Range Acoustic Devices-LRAD- to U.S. Army Units; LRADs Deployed in Iraq for Force Protection” Business Wire, p 5156, May 13, 2004. Article accessed from Infotec 10/13/04.
36 Staff. “Army chooses American Technology Corp. for nonlethal weapon” Military & Aerospace Electronics 15: 34, July 2004. Article accessed from Infotec 10/13/04.
37 American Technology Corporation. “American Technology Corporation Awarded 1.088 Million Contract to Deliver Long Range Acoustic Devices (LRADTM) to US Marine Corps Units: LRADs Deployed to Iraq for Force Protection” press release of 26 Feb 2004. Accessed on 3/8/05 at http://www.atcsd.com/PressReleases/02_26_04.html
38 Davidson N and Lewer N. “Bradford Non-Lethal Weapons Research Project (BNLWRP), Research Report No. 5” Centre for Conflict Resolution, Department of Peace Studies, p 3 & 20, May 2004. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.bradford.ac.uk/acad/nlw/research_reports/docs/BNLWRPResearchReportNo5_May04.pdf
39 Miller C. “Can a Crying Baby Stop a Riot?” Law Enforcement Technology, May, 31(3): 8, 2004. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://newswire.indymedia.org/en/newswire/2004/06/804061.shtml
40 Karp J. “Hey, You! How About Lunch? New Laserlike Sound Beams Messages to Shoppers, Aid Military in Iraq” Wall Street Journal, p B1, April 1, 2004. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://mgtclass.mgt.unm.edu/Rogers/322/READINGS_322/13.8.%20Hey,%20You!%20%20How%20About%20Lunch.doc
41 Onion A. “Listen Up: Unusual Forms of Sound to Emanate From RNC” ABCNEWS.com, Wed 25 Aug 2004. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/printer_082704C.shtml
42 Bush E and Lambert M. “October 29, 2002 meeting: Alternative Loudspeaker Transducer Technologies” Los Angeles Section Meeting of the Audio Engineering Society Oct. 29, 2002. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.aes.org/sections/la/PastMeetings/2002-10-29.html
44 Sparrow D. “Best of What’s New Grand Award Winner: Hypersonic Sound” Popular Science, Dec, p 94, 2002. Accessed on 3/8/05 at http://www.popsci.com/popsci/bown/article/0,16106,388134,00.html
46 Pompei FJ. “The Use of Airborne Ultrasonics for Generating Audible Sound Beams” J Audio Eng Soc 47(9): 726-31, 1999. Abstract Compendex accessible 12/15/04.
48 Holosonics Research Labs. “Audio Spotlight Sound Beam Systems Installed in General Motors Display at Walt Disney’s Epcot” Press Release of Jun 30, 2004. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.holosonics.com/PR_Epcot.html
50 Schneider D. “In the Audio Spotlight” Scientific American 279(4): 40-1, October 1998.
51 Lawton G. “They are playing my tune” New Scientist, 9 Sept, p 38-42, 2000.
52 Schwartz EI. “The Sound War” Technology Review 107(4): 50-4, May 2004.
53 Lee JS. “An Audio Spotlight Creates a Personal Wall of Sound” New York Times, p F4, May 15, 2001.
54 Alexander JB. Future War: Non-Lethal Weapons in Twenty-First-Century Warfare St. Martin’s Press, New York, p 101, 1999.
55 Loos HG. Patent # 6017302 “Subliminal acoustic manipulation of nervous systems” USPTO granted 1/25/00.
56 Presman AS. Electromagnetic Fields and Life Plenum Press, New York-London, p 266, 1970. Presman refers to Cazzimalli’s radiofrequency hallucination observations citing: Cazzamalli F. “Di novo appararto radio-electro rivelatore del fenomeni electromagnetici radianto del cervello umano” L’Energio Electrica 18: 28, 1941. Another English reference to this Italian work accessed 3/8/05 is at http://www.datafilter.com/mc/jaski.html p 2.
57 Nrunori N and Torrisi SS. “Ultra-High Frequency Electro-Magnetic Vibrations, Their Effect Upon Living Organisms” American Journal of Physical Therapy 11: 102-4, 1930.
58 Michaelson SM. “Sensation and Perception of Microwave Energy” In: Michaelson SM, Miller MW, Magin R, and Carstensen EL (eds.) Fundamental and Applied Aspects of Nonionizing Radiation Plenum Press, New York, p 213-29, 1975.
59 Lin JC. “Auditory Perception of Pulsed Microwave Radiation” In: Gandhi OP (ed.) Biological Effects and Medical Applications of Electromagnetic Energy Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Chapter 12, p 278-318, 1990.
60 Chou C-K, Guy AW, and Galambos R. “Auditory perception of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields” J Acoust Soc Am 71(6): 1321-34, 1982.
61 Postow E and Swicord ML. “Modulated Fields and “Window” Effects” In: Polk C and Postow E (eds.) CRC Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields CRC Press, Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, p 425-60, 1986.
62 Frey AH. “Auditory System Response to Radio Frequency Energy” Aerosp Med 32: 1140-2, 1961.
63 Frey AH and Messenger R. “Human Perception of Illumination with Pulsed Ultrahigh-Frequency Electromagnetic Energy” Science 181: 356-8, 1973.
65 Roschmann P. “Human Auditory System Response to Pulsed Radiofrequency Energy in RF Coils for Magnetic Resonance at 2.4 to 170 MHz” Magn Reson Med 21: 197-215, 1991. Abstract Pubmed available.
66 Puranen L and Jokela K. “Radiation Hazards Assessment of Pulsed Microwave Radars” J Microwave Power Electromagn Energy 31(3): 165-77, 1996. Abstract Pubmed available.
67 Hermann DM and Hossmann K-A. “Neurological effects of microwave exposure related to mobile communication” J Neurol Sci 152: 1-14, 1997. Abstract Pubmed available.
68 Lai H. “Neurological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation” In: Lin JC (ed.) Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems vol 1, Plenum Press, New York & London, p 27-80, 1994.
69 Elder JA and Chou CK. “Auditory Responses to Pulsed Radiofrequency Energy” Bioelectromagnetics Suppl 8: S162-73, 2003. Abstract accessed 4/8/05 at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/106565261/PDFSTART and pre-publication draft at http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/scc28/sc4/Human%20Perception%20FINAL.pdf Abstract Pubmed available.
70 Kreithen ML. Patent # 5774088 “Method and system for warning birds of hazards” USPTO granted 6/30/98.
71 Lenhardt ML and Ochs AL. Patent # 6250255 “Methods and apparatus for alerting and/or repelling birds and other animals” USPTO granted 6/26/01.
72 Nordwall BD. “Radar Warns Birds of Impending Aircraft” Aviation Wk Space Technol, March 10, p 65-6, 1997.
73 Justesen DR. Microwaves and behavior. Am Psychologist 30(3, Mar):391-401, 1975. Accessed 3/22/12 at http://sm4csi.home.xs4all.nl/nwo/MindControl/Microwaves_and_Behavior.htm
Relevant excerpts photocopied at http://slavery.org.uk/MicrowavesAndBehavior_excerpts.pdf
Excerpted reference accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.raven1.net/v2succes.htm
74 Lin JC. Microwave Auditory Effects and Applications Thomas, Springfield Ill, p 176, 1978.
75 United States Senate. “Surveillance Technology, 1976: policy and implications, an analysis and compendium of materials: a staff report of the Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights of the Committee of the Judiciary” Ninety-fourth Congress, second session, p 1280, US GOV DOC Y 4.J 882:SU 7/6/976.
76 Oskar KJ. “Effects of low power microwaves on the local cerebral blood flow of conscious rats” Army Mobility Equipment Command Report, # AD-A090426, 1980. Available form NASA Technical Reports. Abstract accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.raven1.net/v2s-nasa.htm and http://www.abovetopsecret.com/pages/lowpower.html
77 Brunkan WB. Patent # 4877027 “Hearing system” USPTO granted 10/31/89.
78 Frey AH. “Behavioral Biophysics” Psychol Bull 63(5): 322-37, 1965.
79 Leyser R. Patent # DE10222439 “Microwave hearing device uses modulated microwave pulses for providing induced sound warning directly within head of deaf person” Federal Republic of Germany Patent and Trademark Office published 12/11/03. Abstract accessed 3/8/05 at http://v3.espacenet.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=DE10222439&F=0 Original German Document accessed 3/8/05 at http://v3.espacenet.com/pdfdocnav?DB=EPODOC&IDX=DE10222439&F=128&QPN=DE10222439 English translation available at http://www.sysos.co.uk/GermanV2K.doc English translation is also available from the author, and Walter Madlinger the translator at email firstname.lastname@example.org
80 Thijs VMJ, Thijs-Jamin A, and Thijis AV. Patent # WO 93/10730 “Hearing Aid Based on Microwaves” World Intellectual Property Organization granted 6/10/93. Summary accessed 3/8/05 at http://v3.espacenet.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=WO9310730&F=0
81 Lebovitz RM and Seaman RL. “Single auditory unit responses to weak pulsed microwave radiation” Brain Res 126: 370-75, 1977.
82 Olsen RG and Hammer WC. “Evidence for Microwave-Induced Acoustical Resonances in Biological Materials” J Microw Power 16(3 & 4): 264-9, 1981. Abstract Pubmed available.
83 Olsen RG and Lin JC. “Microwave Pulse-Induced Acoustic Resonances in Spherical Head Models” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Technique, MTT-29(10): 1114-17, 1981.
84 Lebovitz RM and Seaman RL. “Microwave hearing: The response of single auditory neurons in the cat to pulsed microwave radiation” Radio Science 12(Suppl.): 229-36, 1977.
85 Seaman RL and Lebovitz RM. “Auditory unit responses to single-pulse and twin-pulse microwave stimuli” Hear Res 26: 105-16, 1987. Abstract Pubmed available.
86 Bilsen FA and Ritsma RJ. “Some Parameters Influencing the Perception of Pitch” J Acoust Soc Am 47(2): 469-75, 1970.
87 Zink HR. Patent # GB1402508 “System for Conveying Sound Information to the Brain” Great Britain Patent granted 8/13/75.
88 Stocklin PL. Patent # 4858612 “Hearing device” USPTO granted 8/22/89.
89 Ridder C. “The Amazing Neurophone” The Anchorage Press, vol V, no 36, Sept 5-11, 1996. Full article 3/26/05 accessible at http://www.cridder.com/morgue/press/news/neurophone.html
90 Flanagan GP. Patent # 3393279 “Nervous System Excitation Device” USPTO granted 7/16/68.
92 Schafer CR. Patent # 4220830 “Hearing aid with modulated suppressed carrier signal” USPTO granted 9/2/80.
93 Schafer CR. Patent # 4711243 “Cortical hearing aid” USPTO granted 12/8/87.
94 Bennett WR. “Radio frequency hearing: Electrostrictive detection and bone conduction” J Acoust Soc Am 103(4): 2111-16, 1998. Abstract Pubmed available.
95 Puharich HK and Lawrence JL. Patent # 3629521 “Hearing systems” USPTO granted 12/21/71.
96 Puharich HK and Lawrence JL. “Hearing Rehabilitation by Means of Transdermal Electrotherapy in Human Hearing Loss of Sensineural Origin” Acta Otolaryngol 67: 69-83, 1969.
97 Sommer HC and von Gierke HE. “Hearing Sensations in Electric Fields” Aerosp Med 35: 834-9, 1964.
98 Puharich HK and Lawrence JL. “”Electro-stimulation Techniques” Defense Documentation Report # AD459956, 1964. Available from National Technical Information Service (cost $42).
99 Kohn B. “Communicating Via the Microwave Auditory Effect” Defense Department Awarded SBIR Contract # F41624-95-C9007, 1993. Project description accessed 3/8/05 at http://es.epa.gov/ncer_abstracts/sbir/other/monana/kohn.html & http://www.raven1.net/v2s-kohn.htm
101 Castelli CJ. “Questions Linger about Health Effects of DOD’s ‘Non-Lethal Ray’” Inside the Navy 14(12): 1-6, 2001. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://globalsecurity.org/org/news/2001/e20010327questions.htm
102 Department of the Army, USAF Scientific Advisory Board. “New World Vistas: air and space power for the 21st century” 14 vol. (Ancillary Volume) p 89-90, 1996. Section containing quote accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.envirosagainstwar.org/edit/index.php?op=view&itemid=943
103 O’Loughlin JP and Loree DL. Patent # 6470214 “Method and device for implementing the radio frequency hearing effect” USPTO granted 10/22/02.
104 O’Loughlin JP and Loree DL. Patent # 6587729 “Apparatus for audibly communicating speech using the radio frequency hearing effect” USPTO granted 7/1/03.
105 Office of Public Affairs, Air Force Research Laboratory. Kirtland AFB, NM. “Directed Energy Engineers Win Air Force Awards” News Release, Sept 27, 2004, DE Release #2004-44. Accessed 11/3/04 at http://www.de.afrl.af.mil/News/2004/04-44.html
106 Office of Public Affairs, Air Force Research Laboratory. Kirtland AFB, NM. “Directed Energy People Receive Awards” News Release, April 25, 2002, DE Release #2002-17. Accessed 11/3/04 at http://www.de.afrl.af.mil/News/2002/02-17.html
107 Becker RO and Selden G. The Body Electric: Electromagnetism and the Foundation of Life Quill William Morrow, New York, p 319-20, 1985.
108 Voice to skull devices. Weapons thesaurus (previous editions). Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL). The Federation of American Scientists Project on Government Secrecy provides copy of the entry at URL:http://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/dod/vts.html from when the CALL made the page unprintable as noted in Aftergood S. Voice to skull: More army web shenanigans. Secrecy News, vol 2004, issue 64, July 12, 2004 [Online] [Cited 25 Sept 2005} the last item available from: URL:http://www.fas.org/sgp/news/secrecy/2004/07/071204.html Notation of exclusion of the entry is by Weinberger S. Army yanks ‘voice-to-skull devices’ site. Wired Blog Network 9 May 2008. [Online] [Cited 2008 May 17] URL: http://blog.wired.com/defense/2008/05/army-removes-pa.html Request for congressional investigation by McMurtrey J. Letter to Representative Elijah E. Cummings. 8 Jan 2008 with a similar article to the present in substantiation. Subsequently the request was concerted by 10 other interested parties in states with representation on a congressional committee with relevant investigative jurisdiction, who were sent this article for substantiating investigation request.
109 Krawczyk G. "CIA Using Old Tricks Again" Nexus Magazine, Oct/Nov, 2(22): 9, 1994.
110 Healey F, Persinger MA, and Koren SA. “Control of “Choice” by Application of the Electromagnetic Field Equivalents of Spoken Words. Mediation by the Emotional Meaning Rather Than Linguistic Dimension” Percept Motor Skills 85: 1411-18, 1997. Abstract Pubmed available.
111 Persinger MA. “On the Possibility of Directly Accessing Every Human Brain By Electromagnetic Induction of Fundamental Algorithms” Percept Motor Skills 80: 791-9, 1995. Abstract Pubmed available.
Full article accessed 3/8/05 at (after website preamble) http://www.bariumblues.com/persinger.htm
113 Wild N. “Hand-held Ultrasonic Through-the-wall Monitoring of Stationary and Moving People” Government Technical Report # A857814, Nov 2003. (Available from Storming Media for $22.00.) Abstract accessed on 3/8/05 at http://www.stormingmedia.us/85/8579/A857914.html
114 Wild N, Doft F, Wondra J, Niederhaus S, and Lam H. “Ultrasonic through-the-wall surveillance system” Proceedings of SPIE 4708: 106-13, 2002. Abstract accessed 3/8/05 at http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?2002SPIE.4708..106W Full text 2/23/05 SPIE Digital Library accessible.
115 Frey AH. “Headaches from Cellular Telephones: Are They Real and What Are the Implications” Environ Health Perspect 106(3): 101-3, 1998. Abstract Pubmed available. Full article accessed on 3/8/05 at http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/members/1998/106p101-103frey/frey-full.html
117 Nolan PJ. Fundaments of College Physics Wm. C. Brown: Dubuque, Iowa, Melbourne, Australia, Oxford England, p 716, 1993.
118 Reits BJ. Patent # 5736966 “Adjustable microwave antenna” USPTO granted 4/7/98.
119 Maier G and Harrison D. Patent # 5825554 “Lenses with a variable refraction index” USPTO granted 10/20/98.
120 Jasper LJ. Patent # 6407708 “Microwave generator/radiator using photoconductive switching and dielectric lense” USPTO granted 6/18/02.
121 Bertolotti M. Masers and Lasers: An Historical Approach Adam Hilger, Bristol, 1983.
122 Telephonics Corporation. 815 Broad Hollow Road, Farmingdale, New York 11735 “Advanced Radar Surveillance Systems (ARSS-1)” Accessed 3/8/05 at https://peoiewswebinfo.monmouth.army.mil/portal_sites/IEWS_Public/rus/sensorcat/PDF/ARSS1-telephonics1.PDF Company website at http://www.telephonics.com/
123 Pro Patria PLC. H-1045 Budapest Ersebet u. 2-4. “Beagle Portable Ground Surveillance Radar” Accessed 3/8/05 at https://peoiewswebinfo.monmouth.army.mil/portal_sites/IEWS_Public/rus/sensorcat/PDF/BEAGLE-ADI2.pdf
124 Syracuse Research Corporation. Syracuse University, New York. “AN/PPS-5D Man-Portable Battlefield Surveillance Radar” Accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.syrres.com/stc/products_anPPS-5d.htm Company website at http://www.syrres.com/default.htm
125 MSSC – a partnership of Thales and DRS Technologies. Parsippany, New Jersey. “Squire LPI Ground Surveillance Radar” Accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.drs.com/products/index.cfm?gID=18&productID=211 DRS Technologies website at http://www.drs.com/
126 Systems & Electronics, Inc. 201 Evans Ave, St. Louis MO 63121 “Manportable Surveillance and Target Acquisition Radar” accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.seistl.com/pdf/MSTAR%20military%20handout.pdf Company website is at http://www.seistl.com/
127 Streetly M (ed.) Jane’s Radar and Electronic Warfare Systems 12th ed, 2000-2001, Jane’s Information Group Ltd, Alexandria, VA, p 67-118, 2000.
128 Tekes. “Portable Ground Surveillance Radar” accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.tekes.fi/partner/fin/search/nayta_haku.asp?hakuid=16598
130 Brookner E. Tracking and Kalman Filtering Made Easy Wiley, New York, 1998.
131 Frazier LM. “Surveillance Through Walls and Other Opaque Materials” IEEE National Radar Conference, p 27-31, 1996. Full text 2/14/05 IEEE Xplore accessible.
132 Petty RT. Jane’s Weapon Systems Jane’s Information Group Ltd, Alexandria, VA, p 211-79, 1979.
133 Tisdale GE and Lindemann HB. Patent # 4497065 “Target recognition system enhanced by active signature measurements” USPTO granted 1/29/85.
134 Peralta EA and Reitz KM. Patent # 4562439 “Imaging radar seeker” USPTO granted 12/31/85.
135 Ahlstrom LGW. Patent # 4796834 “Method for combating of targets and projectile or missile for carrying out the method” USPTO granted 1/10/89.
136 Rowan L. Patent # 4893815 “Interactive transector device commercial and military grade” USPTO granted 1/16/90.
137 Giori FA and Winterberger AR. “Remote Physiological Monitoring Using a Microwave Interferometer” Biomed Sci Instr 3: 291-307, 1967.
138 Lin JC. “Microwave Sensing of Physiological Movement and Volume Change: A Review” Bioelectromagnetics 13: 557-65, 1992. Abstract Pubmed available.
139 Matsui T, Ishizuka T, Takase B, Ishihara M, and Kikuchi M. “Non-contact determination of vital sign alterations in hypovolaemic states induced by massive haemorrhage: an experimental attempt to monitor the condition of injured persons behind barriers or under disaster rubble” Med Biol Eng Comput 42(6): 807-11, 2004. Abstract Pubmed available.
140 Sharpe SM, Seale J, MacDonald AH, and Crowgey SR. Patent # 4958638 “Non-contact vital signs monitor” USPTO granted 9/25/90.
141 Geisheimer J and Greneker EF. “A Non-Contact Lie Detector using Radar Vital Signs Monitor (RVSM) Technology” IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine 16(8): 10-14, 2001. IEEE Xplore 2/25/05 accessible.
142 Kues HA, Nelson CV, and Bevan MG. “Remote Sensing of Physiological Indices” Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory Research and Development Symposium 5, Nov 2-3, 1999.
143 Staderini E.M. "An UWB radar based stealthy 'Lie Detector'" In: Mokole et al. (eds.) Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 6 Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2003. Paper revision prior to publication accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.hrvcongress.org/second/first/placed_3/Staderini_Art_Eng.pdf
144 Hablov DV, Fisun OI, Lupichev LN, Osipov VV, Schestiperov VA, and Schimko R. Patent # 5448501 ”Electronic life detection system” USPTO granted 9/5/95.
145 Hablov DV, Fisun OI, Lupichev LN, Osipov VV, Schestiperov VA, and Schimko R. Patent # 5530429 “Electronic surveillance system” USPTO granted 6/25/96.
146 Hunt AR and Hogg RD. “Stepped-Frequency, CW Radar for Concealed Weapon Detection and Through the Wall Surveillance” Proceedings of SPIE 4708: 99-105, 2002. Abstract accessed 3/8/05 at http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?2002SPIE.4708...99H Full text 2/14/05 Compendex accessible.
147 Geisheimer JL, Marshall WS, and Greneker EF. “A Continuous-Wave (CW) Radar for Gait Analysis” Conference Record of the IEEE Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers 1: 834-8, 2001. Full article 2/2/05 IEEE Xplore accessible.
148 Geisheimer JL, Greneker EF, and Marshall WS. “A High Resolution Doppler Model of Human Gait” Proceedings of SPIE 4744: 8-18, 2002. Abstract accessed 3/8/05 at http://spiedl.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=PSISDG004744000001000008000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes Full text 2/14/04 Compendex accessible.
149 Grenecker EF. “Radar sensing of heartbeat and respiration at a distance with security applications” Proceedings of SPIE 3066: 22-7, 1997. Third abstract accessed 3/8/05 within http://www.spie.org/web/abstracts/3000/3066.html Full text 2/14/05 SPIE Digital Library accessible.
150 Geisheimer J and Greneker G. “Applications of Neural Networks to the Radarcardiogram (RCG)” Proceedings of SPIE 3722: 368-77, 1999. Full text 2/24/05 SPIE Digital Library accessible.
151 McMillan RW, Currie NC, Ferris DD, and Wicks MC. “Concealed Weapon Detection Using Microwave and Millimeter Wave Sensors” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Microwave and Millimeter Wave Technology, p 1-4, 1998. Full article 2/2/05 IEEE Xplore accessible.
152 Ferris DD. "Microwave and millimeter-wave systems for wall penetration" Proceedings of SPIE 3375: 269-79, 1998. Abstract #29 accessed 3/8/05 within http://www.spie.org/web/abstracts/3300/3375.html Full text 2/14/05 Compendex accessible.
153 Ferris DD and Currie NC. “A Survey of current technologies for through-the-wall surveillance (TWS)” Proceedings of SPIE 3577: 62-72, 1998. Abstract accessed 3/8/05 at http://spiedl.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=PSISDG003577000001000062000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes&jsessionid=170181091673548080 Full text 2/14/05 SPIE Digital Library accessible.
154 Frazier LM. “Radar Surveillance through Solid Materials” Proceedings of SPIE 2938: 139-46, 1997. Abstract accessed 3/8/05 at http://spiedl.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=PSISDG002938000001000139000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes Full text 2/14/05 SPIE Digital Library accessible.
155 Gauthier S. “Surveillance Through Concrete Walls” Proceedings of SPIE 5403: 597-608, 2004. Full article Compendex accessible 1/25/05.
156 Ahmad F, Amin MG, and Kassam SA. “Through-the-Wall Wideband Synthetic Aperture Beamformer” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society Symposium 3: 3059-62, 2004. Full article 1/31/05 IEEE Xplore accessible.
157 Huguenin GR. “Millimeter Wave Concealed Weapon Detection and Through-the-Wall Imaging Systems” Proceedings of SPIE 2938: 152-9, 1997. Full text 2/14/05 SPIE Digital Library accessible.
158 The New Encyclopedia Britannica “Radar” Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc, vol 26, p 466, 2002.
159 Clark SE, Lovberg JA, Martin CA, and Kolinko V. “Passive millimeter-wave imaging for airborne and security applications” Proceedings of SPIE 5077: 16-21, 2003. Abstract accessed 3/8/05 at http://spiedl.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=PSISDG005077000001000016000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes Full text 2/14/05 Compendex accessible.
160 Huguenin GR. “Millimeter-Wave Video Rate Imagers” Proceedings of SPIE 3064: 34-45, 1997. Abstract accessed 3/8/05 at http://spiedl.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=PSISDG003064000001000034000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes Full text 2/14/05 SPIE Digital Library accessible.
161 Raytheon Company. Corporate Communications, 870 Winter Street, Waltham, MA 02451-1449 Accessed 3/8/05 at https://peoiewswebinfo.monmouth.army.mil/portal_sites/IEWS_Public/RUS/sensorcat/PDF/EMARS-Raytheon1.PDF
162 Black JD. “Motion and ranging sensor system for through-the-wall surveillance system” Proceedings of SPIE 4078: 114-21, 2002. Abstract accessed 3/8/05 http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?2002SPIE.4708..114B Full text 2/14/05 Compendex accessible.
163 National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center. “Looking Through Walls” Tech Beat, p 1-2, Summer, 2000. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.nlectc.org/techbeat/summer2000/LookWallsSum2000.pdf
164 Robinson R. “Through the Wall Ultra Wideband Radar: An Investigation into the Feasibility of Building and In-House UWB Radar Hardware Capability” RWR Consulting Contract for Defence R&D Canada, Ottawa CR 2003-923, Mar 2003. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://cradpdf.drdc-rddc.gc.ca/PDFS/unc17/p520580.pdf
165 Defence Research and Development Canada of the Department of National Defence Fact Sheet Library accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.dreo.dnd.ca/publications/factsheets/tws_e.asp
166 Siwiak K, Withington P, and Phelan S. “Ultra-Wide Band Radio: The Emergence of an Important New Technology” Vehicular Technology Conference, 2001, VTC 2001 Spring, IEEE 53rd 2: 1169-72, 2001. Full text 2/14/05 Compendex accessible.
167 Hunt AR. “A wideband imaging radar for through-the-wall surveillance” Proceedings of SPIE 5403: 590-6, 2004. Full article 2/6/05 Compendex accessible.
168 Fontana RJ. “Recent Applications of Ultra Wideband Radar and Communications Systems” In: Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press, in press, 2004. Accessed on 3/31/05 at http://www.multispectral.com/pdf/UWBApplications.pdf
169 Fullerton LW and Richards JI. Patent # 6400307 “System and method for intrusion detection using a time domain radar array” USPTO granted 6/4/02.
170 Time Domain Corporation. Cummings Research Park, 7057 Old Madison Pike, Suite 250, Huntsville, AL 35806 accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.radarvision.com/ , and company website is at http://www.timedomain.com/
171 Mannion P. “Ultrawideband watches over firefighters” EE Times, April 20, 2001. Accessed on 3/8/05 at http://www.eetimes.com/sys/news/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=12805512 & http://www.commsdesign.com/news/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=12805512
172 Nag S, Fluhler H, and Barnes M. “Preliminary Interferometric Images of Moving Targets Obtained Using a Time Modulated Ultra-Wide Band Through-Wall Penetration Radar” Proceedings of the IEEE Radar Conference, May 1-3, p 64-9, 2001. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://184.108.40.206/radar2001/html/papers/session%202/session2-b-Nag.pdf Full text IEEE Xplore accessible.
173 Time Domain Corporation. “Time Domain Selects Armor Holdings to Distribute RadarVision Products Internationally” press release of 9 Sept 1994. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.timedomain.com/Files/HTML/pressreleases/ArmorHoldings.htm
174 Barnes MA, Nag S, and Payment T. “Covert Situational Awareness With Handheld Ultra-Wideband Short Pulse Radar” Proceedings of SPIE 4374: 66-77, 2001. Full text 2/14/05 Compendex accessible.
175 Port O. “X-Ray Vision for G. I. Joe” Business Week Online, Oct 17, 2002. Accessed on 3/8/05 at http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/oct2002/tc20021017_4359.htm
176 Nag S, Barnes MA, Payment T, and Holladay GW. “An Ultra-Wideband Through-Wall Radar for Detecting the Motion of People in Real Time” Proceedings of SPIE 4744: 48-57, 2002. Full text 2/14/05 Compendex accessible.
177 Greneker EF. “Radar flashlight for through-the-wall detection of humans” Proceedings of SPIE 3375: 280-85, 1998. Abstract accessed 3/8/05 at http://spiedl.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=PSISDG003375000001000280000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes Full text 2/14/05 Compendex accessible.
178 Staff. “Hand-held radar device detects breathing, heartbeats” Design News, Jan 19, 1998. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.designnews.com/article/CA110182?stt=001&text=hand%2Dheld+radar
179 Burton GJ and Ohlke GP. “Exploitation of Millimeter Waves for Through-Wall Surveillance During Military Operations in Urban Terrain” Land Force Technical Staff Programme V, Department of Applied Military Science, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario, 24 May 2000. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.rmc.ca/academic/gradrech/millimeter-e.pdf
180 Hunt AR. “Image Formation Through Walls Using a Distributed Radar Sensor Array” Proceedings of the IEEE 32nd Applied Imagery Pattern Recognition Workshop, p 232-7, 2003. Abstract accessed on 3/8/05 at http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/aipr/2003/2029/00/20290232abs.htm Full article 2/14/05 IEEE Xplore accessible.
181 Falconer DG, Steadman KN, and Watters DG. “Through-the-Wall Differential Radar” Proceedings of SPIE 2938: 147-51, 1997. Abstract accessed 3/8/05 at http://spiedl.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=PSISDG002938000001000147000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes Full text 2/14/05 SPIE Digital Library accessible.
183 Ivashov SI, Razevic VV, Sheyko AP, and Vasilyev IA. “Detection of Human Breathing and Heartbeat by Remote Radar” Progress in Electromagnetic Research Symposium, Pisa, Italy, Mar 28-31, 2004. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.rslab.ru/english/downloads/piers2004_68_03.pdf
184 Soviet Union Draft Agreement on the Prohibition of the Development and Manufacture of New Types of Weapons of Mass Destruction and New Systems of Such Weapons. UN Committee on Disarmament, CCD/511/Rev.1, Aug 1977. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.mindjustice.org/9.htm
185 European Parliament, 28.1.99 Environment, security, and foreign affairs, A4-0005/99 EP1159, resolutions 23, 24, & 27, January 28, 1999. Limited excerpts accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.raven1.net/europar.htm
186 Wright S. “Future Sub-lethal, Incapacitating & Paralyzing Technologies—Their Coming Role in the Mass Production of Torture, Cruel, Inhumane & Degrading Treatment. Presented to The Expert Seminar On Security Equipment & The Prevention of Torture 25-26 October 2002 London, UK and The 16th ISODARCO Winter Course On "The Surge in Non-State Violence: Roots Impacts & Countermeasures" 9 - 16 February, 2003, Andalo, Trento, Italy. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.statewatch.org/news/2002/nov/torture.pdf
187 Begich N and Manning J. Angels Don’t Play This HAARP: Advances in Telsa Technology Earthpulse Press, Anchorage Alaska, p 176-8, 1995.
188 Brzezinski Z. Between Two Ages: America’s Role in the Technetronic Era Viking Press, New York, p 57 & 252, 1970.
189 Space Preservation Act of 2001 (Introduced in the House) HR 2977 IH, 107th Congress 1st Session Introduced by Hon. Dennis J. Kucinich. Excerpts accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.raven1.net/govptron.htm
190 Michigan Penal Code Act 328 of 1931, Chapter XXXIII Explosives Bombs and Harmful Devices, § 750.200h Definitions, § 750.200i Unlawful acts: penalties, § 750.200l Act causing false belief of exposure: violation: penalty (West’s 2004 Supplement) (Amended by P.A. 2003 Nos. 256 & 257, Eff. Jan. 1, 2004). Text is LexisNexis accessible.
191 Federal Law “About Weapons” Federal Laws of the Russian Federation from 21.07.98  No. 117-F3, from 31.07.98 [‘98] No. 156-F3, from 17.12.98 [‘98] No. 187-F3, from 19.11.99 [‘99] No. 194-F3, from 10.04.2000 [’00] No. 52-F3, from 26.07.01 [‘01] ISBN 5-86894-393-7. Translation accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.raven1.net/1-02-5.htm
192 Gurov AI. Federal Assembly—Parliament of the Russian Assembly, Governmental Duma, Committee on Safety, “Resolution: Regarding the Draft of the Federal Law ‘About the Submission of Addendum to Article 6 of the Federal Law ‘About Weapons’” No 28/3, Nov. 30, 2000. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.raven1.net/1-02-6.htm
193 General Assembly. International Union of Radio Science “USRI Resolution on Criminal Activities Using Electromagnetic Tools” In: Records of the USRI General Assembly, Toronto, 25: 178-9, 1999. Excerpt accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.metatechcorp.com/EMIthr1/slide2.htm
194 Opall B. “Israel Fields Means to Suppress Palestinian Violence” Defense News, Dec 17-23, p 8, 2001.
195 Guyatt DG. “Some Aspects of Anti-Personnel Electromagnetic Weapons” International Committee of the Red Cross Symposium: The Medical Profession and the Effects of Weapons, ICRC publication ref. 06681996 (the paper is available from the Health Division of the ICRC). Accessed on 3/8/05 at Some Aspects of Anti Personnel Electromagnetic Weapons
197 Hughes D (ed.) “Washington Outlook” Aviation Week & Space Technology, Mar 21, p 21, 1998.
198 United States Air Force. “Active Denial System Advanced Concept Design Demonstration” Fact Sheet accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.de.afrl.af.mil/factsheets/activedenial.html
199 Hecht J. “Microwave beam weapon to disperse crowds” New Scientist, 27 Oct, p 26, 2001. Accessed on 3/8/05 at http://www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id=ns99991470
200 Sirak M. “US DoD considers testing non-lethal energy” Janes Defence Weekly, 2 March, 2001. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.janes.com/defence/news/jdw/jdw010302_1_n.shtml
201 Freinberg T and Rayment S. “Microwave gun to be used by US on Iraq rioters” Telegraph (UK), filed 19 Sept 2004 accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2004/09/19/wirq319.xml&sSheet=/news/2004/09/19/ixworld.html
202 Morehouse DA. Nonlethal Weapons: War without Death Praeger, p 20, 1996.
203 Dando M. A New Form of Warfare: The Rise of Non-Lethal Weapons Brassey’s, London & Washington, p 22, 1996.
204 Lewer N and Schofield S. Non-Lethal Weapons: A Fatal Attraction?: Military Strategies and Technologies for 21st-Century Conflict Zed Books, London & New Jersey, p 11 & 62, 1997.
205 Becker RO. Cross Currents Jeremy P. Tarcher, Inc, Los Angeles, St Martin’s Press, p 297-304, 1990.
206 Modak AT, Stavinoha WB, and Deam AP. “Effect of Short Electromagnetic Pulses on Brain Acetylcholine Content and Spontaneous Motor Activity of Mice” Bioelectromagnetics 2: 89-92, 1981. Abstract Pubmed available.
207 Duncan JC. “A Primer on the Employment of Non-Lethal Weapons” Naval Law Review 45: 1-56, 1998. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/law/nonlet2.pdf
208 Lewer N. “Non-Lethal Weapons” Medicine and War 11: 78-90, 1995.
210 Tapscott M. “DoD, Intel Agencies Look at Mind Control Technology, Claims FBI Considered Testing on Koresh” Defense Electronics, July, p 17, 1993. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://int.psycor.ru/main.php?pubp01 and http://www.waco93.com/defenseelectronics.htm
213 Lowery OM. Patent # 5159703 “Silent subliminal presentation system” USPTO granted 10/27/92.
217 U S House of Representatives. “Subliminal communication technology: hearing before the Subcommittee on Transportation, Aviation, and Materials of the Committee on Science and Technology, Ninety-eighth Congress, second session, Aug. 6, 1984, p 90-104, Microfiche US GOV DOC Y 4.SCI 2:98/105.
218 Lorelei Communications Group, Inc. 2420 South 177th Street, Omaha NE 68130 “Subliminal Message Encoders, Consider This! ‘Positive Reinforcement”, Subliminal Communication “ accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.lorelei.com/articles-consider-this-positive-reinforcement-subliminal-communication.html & http://www.lorelei.com/articles-consider-this-positive-reinforcement-subliminal-communication-part-2.html
219 Berke RL. “Democrats See, and Smell, ‘Rats’ in G.O.P. Ad” New York Times, Sept 12, p 1 & 22, 2000. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.greenspun.com/bboard/q-and-a-fetch-msg.tcl?msg_id=003nJE
220 Dixon R. “Abusing the Power of Suggestion in Russian TV Ads” Los Angles Times, Aug 25, p A5, 2002. Excerpted article accessed 3/8/05, though misattributed as to date and misleading as to title is at http://www.rense.com/general29/sdeew.htm
221 Steneck NH. The Microwave Debate MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, London Eng, p 93, 181-9, 1984.
222 United States, Congress, Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation. “Microwave irradiation of the U.S. Embassy in Moscow: review of its history and studies to determine whether or not related health defects were experienced by employees assigned in the period 1953-1977.” US GOV. DOC. Y 4.C 73/7: IR 7.
223 Smith CW and Best S. Electromagnetic Man J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd., London, p 211, 233, & 235, 1989.
224 Johnson Liakouris AG. “Radiofrequency (RF) Sickness in the Lillenfeld Study: An Effect of Modulated Microwaves?” Arch Enviorn Health 53(3): 236-38, 1998. Abstract Pubmed available.
225 Goldsmith JR. “Epidemiological Evidence of Radiofrequency Radiation (Microwave) Effects on Health in Military, Broadcasting, and Occupational Studies” Int J Occup Environ Health 1: 47-57, 1995. Abstract Pubmed available.
226 Goldsmith JR. “Where the trail leads . . . Ethical problems arising when the trail of professional work leads to evidence of cover-up of serious risk and mis-representation of scientific judgment concerning human exposures to radar” Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 5: 92-4, 1995.
227 Schiefelbein S. “The Invisible Threat: The Stifled Story of Electric Waves” Saturday Review, Sept, 15: 16-20, p 17, 1979.
228 Brodeur, P. The Zapping of America Norton, New York, p 299 & 105, 1977.
229 Parry G. “Doctors investigating claims of Greenham radiation cases: Peace women fear electronic zapping at base” (Manchester) Guardian, Mar, 10: 3, 1986.
230 Ramsay R. “ELF: from Mind Control to Mind Wars” Lobster Magazine 19: 23, 1990.
231 Gillin LM and Gillin L. “Subtle Energies, Intentionality and the Healing of Traumatically Abused Persons” International Conference on Trauma, Attachment and Dissociation, Melborne, Australia, Sept 12-14, 2003. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.delphicentre.com.au/conference/2003papers/Gillin.pdf Victim field measurements are also in “Submission to Coroner: Additional Information on Possible Cause of Death of Ms. Deva Denise Paul on 10th September 2000, Case Reference 2958/00.” accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.globaltwa.com/SUBMISSION%20TO%20CORONER.pdf
232 Munzert R. “High-Tech Waffe Mikrowelle - Kriminelle Anwendungen von Mikrowellen” Aufklärungsarbeit, Heft 9, April, S. 25-31, 2003. English treatment “Targeting of the Human with Directed Energy Weapons” accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.grn.es/electropolucio/munzert6902.doc
233 Munzert R. Personal communication in 2003.
234 Babacek M. “Are There Secret Weapons of Mass Destruction?” Second article (p 9 of a printout) accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Campus/2289/webpage.htm
235 Babacek M. “Electromagnetic and Information Weapons: The Remote Manipulation of the Human Brain” New Dawn, March-April, p 51-6, 2005.
236 Advanced Electronic Security. 6646 Hollywood Blvd, #212, Los Angeles, CA 90028 accessed on 3/8/05 at http://www.bugsweeps.com/info/electronic_harassment.html
237 McMurtrey JJ. “Review of Literature Related to Recording Microwave Hearing Effects: Literature Review and Case Report of an Affiant to Recording Remote Harassment” Accessed 10/27/04 at http://www.slavery.org.uk/RecordingMicrowaveHearingEffects.doc
238 Rodwell R. Defense correspondent report “Army tests new riot weapon” New Scientist, Sept 20, p 684, 1973.
239 McKinney J. “Microwave Harassment and Mind Control Experimentation” Unclassified, June-July, 1992 4(3): 1-20. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.webcom.com/~pinknoiz/coldwar/microwave.html
241 Multi-Media Solutions. Knoxville/Alcoa Corporate Offices, PO Box 113, Alcoa, TN 37701. This company handles American Technology products. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.m-media.com/Audio-Displays/hss/index.php
245 Babacek M. “Is That Feasible to Manipulate Human Brain at Distance?” First paper accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Campus/2289/webpage.htm
246 Smith C. “On the Need for New Criteria of Diagnosis of Psychosis in the Light of Mind Invasive Technology” J Psycho-Social Studies 2(2) #3, 2003. Article accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.btinternet.com/~psycho_social/Vol3/JPSS-CS2.html
247 American Psychiatric Association DSM-IV Task Force. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV-TRTM) American Psychiatric Association, p 297-343, 2000.
248 Flaum M and Schultz SK. “The Core Symptoms of Schizophrenia” Ann Med 28(6): 525-31, 1996. Abstract Pubmed available.
249 Isselbacher, KJ, Adams RD, Brunwald E, Petersdorf RG, and Wilson JD (eds.) Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine Ninth Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, p 150, 1980.
250 McMurtrey JJ. “Microwave Bioeffect Congruence with Schizophrenia” In press, 2005. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.slavery.org.uk/MicrowaveCongruenceSchiz.doc & http://www.grn.es/electropolucio/microwav.rtf
251 McMurtrey JJ. “Thought Reading Capacity” In press 2005. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.slavery.org.uk/ThoughtReadingCapacity.htm